A Roadmap for Quantum Interconnects

A Roadmap for Quantum Interconnects

A Roadmap for Quantum Interconnects” is the result of the collective work of a team of Q-NEXT members and participants from academia, industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories.

The roadmap provides direction for quantum interconnects research and its impact for quantum information science and technology, addressing the role of quantum interconnects in three emerging areas: quantum computing, communication and sensing. It reviews the materials, components and systems used for these purposes; summarizes relevant scientific questions and issues; and addresses the most pressing research needs. The document distills these considerations into recommendations for strategic science and technology research imperatives for the next decade.

In addition to informing Q-NEXT’s internal activities, the roadmap was created with a broader objective of developing a guide for key issues and research needed over the next decade for the worldwide scientific and engineering community interested in quantum information.


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S. Haldar, A. Mitra, M. Hermes, L. Gagliardi. 2023. “Local excitations of a charged nitrogen vacancy in diamond with multireference density matrix embedding theory.” doi:10.26434/chemrxiv-2023-sjmtl

A. Gonzales, R. Shaydulin, Z. H. Saleem, M. Suchara. 2023. “Quantum error mitigation by Pauli check sandwiching.” Nature Scientific Reports 13, 2122. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-28109-x


B. Huang, N. Sheng, M. Govoni, G. Galli. 2023. “Quantum simulations of fermionic hamiltonians with efficient encoding and ansatz schemes.” arXiv:2212.01912

J. Rovny, Z. Yuan, M. Fitzpatrick, A. I. Abdalla, L. Futamura, C. Fox, M. C. Cambria, S. Kolkowitz, N. P. De Leon. 2022. “Nanoscale covariance magnetometry with diamond quantum sensors.” Science, 378, 6626. doi:10.1126/science.ade9858

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Z. W. Riedel, D. R. Pearson Jr., M. H. Karigerasi, J. A. N. T. Soares, E. A. Goldschmidt, D. P. Shoemaker. 2022. “Synthesis of Eu(HCOO)3 and Eu(HCOO)3 · (HCONH2)2 crystals and observation of their 5D07F0 transition for quantum information systems.” Journal of Luminescence, volume 249, 119006.

M. Koppenhöfer, P. Groszkowski, H.-K. Lau, and A. A. Clerk. 2022. “Dissipative superradiant spin amplifier for enhanced quantum sensing.” Physical Review X, 3, 030330.

S. L. Bayliss, P. Deb, D. W. Laorenza, M. Onizhuk, G. Galli, D. E. Freedman, and D. D. Awschalom. 2022. “Enhancing spin coherence in optically addressable molecular qubits through host-matrix control.” Physical Review X, 12, 031028.

S. Gulania, B. Peng, Y. Alexeev, N. Govind. 2022. “Quantum time dynamics of 1D-Heisenberg models employing the Yang-Baxter equation for circuit compression.” Physical Review A, 106, 012412.

M. Liu, J. Liu, Y. Alexeev, L. Jiang. 2022. “Estimating the frame potential of large-scale quantum circuit sampling using tensor networks up to 50 qubits.” arXiv:2205.09900

T. Goh, R. Pandharkar, L. Gagliardi. 2022. “Multireference study of optically addressable vanadium-based molecular qubit candidates.” 10.26434/chemrxiv-2022-59f1v

A. Sarkar, D. G. Truhlar, L. Gagliardi. “Multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory for chromium(IV) molecular qubits.” 10.26434/chemrxiv-2022-ls796

Y. Ahn, M. J. Cherukara, Z. Cai, M. Bartlein, T. Zhou, A. DiChiara, D. A. Walk, M. Holt, E. E. Fullerton, P. G. Evans, H. Wen. “X-ray nanodiffraction imaging reveals distinct nanoscopic dynamics of an ultrafast phase transition.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119 (19).

A. M. Dibos, M. T. Solomon, S. E. Sullivan, M. K. Singh, K. E. Sautter, C. P. Horn, G. D. Grant, Y. Lin, J. Wen, F. J. Heremans, S. Guha, David D. Awschalom. 2022. “Purcell enhancement of erbium ions in TiO2 on silicon nanocavities.” arXiv:2204.09859

P. Huft, Y. Song, T. M. Graham, K. Jooya, S. Deshpande, C. Fang, M. Kats, M. Saffman. 2022. “A simple, passive design for large optical trap arrays for single atoms.” arxiv:2204.07788

A. Kakkar, J. Larson, A. Galda, R. Shaydulin. 2022. “Characterizing error mitigation by symmetry verification in QAOA.” arxiv:2204.05852

S. L. Bayliss, P. Deb, D. W. Laorenza, M. Onizhuk, G. Galli, D. E. Freedman, D. D. Awschalom. 2022. “Enhancing spin coherence in optically addressable molecular qubits through host-matrix control.” arxiv:2204.00168.

S. Chen, S. Zhou, A. Seif, L. Jiang. 2022. “Quantum advantages for Pauli channel estimation.” Physical Review A, 105, 032435.

A. Seif, Z. P. Cian, S. Zhou, S. Chen, L. Jiang, L. 2022. “Shadow distillation: quantum error mitigation with classical shadows for near-term quantum processors.” arxiv:2203.07309

B. Huang, M. Govoni, G. Galli. 2021. “Simulating the electronic structure of spin defects on quantum computers.” Physical Review X – Quantum, 3 (1). doi:10.1103/PRXQuantum.3.010339

T. X. Zheng, A. Li, J. Rosen, S. Zhou, M Koppenhöfer, Z. Ma, F. T. Chong, A. A. Clerk, L. Jiang, L., P. C. Maurer 2022.  “Preparation of metrological states in dipolar-interacting spin systems.” arxiv:2203.03084

C. H. Wang, F. Li. L. Jiang, L. 2022. “Quantum capacities of transducers.” arxiv:2203:00012

M. Xie, X. Yu, L. V. H. Rodgers, D. Xu, I. Chi-Duran, A. Toros, N. Quack, N. P. de Leon, P. C. Maurer. 2022. “Biocompatible surface functionalization architecture for a diamond quantum sensor.” PNAS, vol. 119 no. 8. doi/10.1073/pnas.2114186119

D. K. Angell, S. Li, H. Utzat, M. L. S. Thurston, Y. Liu, J. Dahl, R. Carlson, Z.-X. Shen, R. Sinclair, N. Melosh, J. A. Dionne. 2022. “Nanodiamond grain boundaries and lattice expansion drive Silicon vacancy emission heterogeneity.” arXiv:2202.07879

M. K. Singh, G. Wolfowicz, J. Wen, S. E. Sullivan, A. Prakash, A. M. Dibos, D. D. Awschalom, F. J. Heremans, S. Guha. 2022. “Development of a scalable quantum memory platform — materials science of erbium-doped TiO2 thin films on silicon.” arxiv:2202.05376

D. M. Lukin, M. A. Guidry, J. Yang, M. Ghezellou, S. D. Mishra, H. Abe, T. Ohshima, J. Ul-Hassan, J. Vučković. 2022. “Optical superradiance of a pair of color centers in an integrated silicon-carbide-on-insulator microresonator.” arxiv:2202.04845

C. Zhong, X. Han, L. Jiang. 2022. “Quantum transduction with microwave and optical entanglement.” arxiv:2202.03084

C. Oh, Y. Lim, Y. Wong, B. Fefferman, L. Jiang. 2022. “Quantum-inspired classical algorithm for molecular vibronic spectra. arxiv:2202.01861

C. B. Young, A. Safari, P. Huft, J. Zhang, E. Oh, R. Chinnarasu, M. Saffman. 2022. “An architecture for quantum networking of neutral atom processors.” arXiv:2202.01634

C. P. Anderson, E. O. Glen, C. Zeledon, A. Bourasa, Y. Jin, Y Zhu, C. Vorwerk, A. L. Crook, H. Abe, J. Ul-Hassan, T. Ohshima, N. T. Son, G. Galli, D. D. Awschalom. 2022. “Five-second coherence of a single spin with single-shot readout in silicon carbide.” Science Advances 8 (5). doi/10.1126/sciadv.abm5912

J. Rable, B. Piazza, J. Dwivedi, N. Samarth. 2022. “Local ferromagnetic resonance measurements of mesoscopically patterned ferromagnets using deterministically placed nanodiamonds.” arxiv:2201.10722

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X. Guo, N. Delegan, J. C. Karsch, Z. Li, T. Liu, R. Shreiner, A. Butcher, D. D. Awschalom, F. J. Heremans, A. A. High. 2021. “Tunable and transferable diamond membranes for integrated quantum technologies.” Nano Letters. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c03703

A. Deshpande, P. Niroula, O. Shtanko, A. V. Gorshkov, B. Fefferman, M. J. Gullans. 2021. “Tight bounds on the convergence of noisy random circuits to the uniform distribution.” arxiv:2112.00716

J. C. Aulicino, T. Keen, B. Peng. 2021. “State preparation and evolution in quantum computing: a perspective from Hamiltonian moments.” International Journal of Quantum Chemistry.

D. W. Laorenza, A. Kairalapova, S. L. Bayliss, T. Goldzak, S. M. Greene, L. R. Weiss, P. Deb, P. J. Mintun, K. A. Collins, D. D. Awschalom, T. Berkelbach, D. E. Freedman. 2021. “Tunable Cr4+ molecular color centers.” Journal of the American Chemical Society.

J. Liu, F. Tacchino, J. R. Glick, L. Jiang, A. Mezzacapo. 2021. “Representation learning via quantum neural tangent kernels.” arxiv:2111.04225

X. Wu, A. Kolar, J. Chung, D. Jin, R. Kettimuthu, M. Suchara. 2021. “Parallel simulation of quantum networks with distributed quantum state management.” arXiv:2111.03918

M. Fukami, D. R. Candido, D. D. Awschalom, M. E. Flatte. 2021. “Opportunities for long-range magnon-mediated entanglement of spin qubits via on- and off-resonant coupling.” Physical Review X – Quantum. doi:10.1103/PRXQuantum.2.040314

X. Wu, A. Kolar, J. Chung, D. Jin, T. Zhong, R. Kettimuthu and M. Suchara. 2021. “SeQUeNCe: a customizable discrete-event simulator of quantum networks.” Quantum Science and Technology.

J. Trimble, B. Gould, F. J. Heremans, S. S.-L. Zhang, D. D. Awschalom, and J. Berezovsky. 2021. “Relaxation of a single defect spin by the low-frequency gyrotropic mode of a magnetic vortex.” Journal of Applied Physics 130, 083903.

M. P. Warusawithana, C. S. Kengle, X. Zhan, H. Chen, E. V. Colla, M. O’Keeffe, J. Zuo, M. B. Weissman, and J. N. Eckstein. 2021. “Asymmetric ferroelectricity by design in atomic-layer superlattices with broken inversion symmetry.” Phys. Rev. B, 104, 085103.

M. K. Singh, L. Jiang, D. D. Awschalom, S. Guha. 2021. “Key device and materials specifications for a repeater enabled quantum internet.” IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering, vol. 2.

N. P. De Leon, K. M. Itoh, D. Kim, K. K. Mehta, T. E. Northrup, H. Paik, B. S. Palmer, N. Samarth, S. Sangtawesin, D. W. Steuerman. 2021. “Materials challenges and opportunities for quantum computing hardware.” Science 372 abb2823. doi/10.1126/science.abb2823

S. Kanai, F. J. Heremans, H. Seo, G. Wolfowicz, C. P. Anderson, S. E. Sullivan, G. Galli, D. D. Awschalom, H. Ohno. 2021. “Generalized scaling of spin qubit coherence in over 12,000 host materials.” arxiv:2102.02986

Acknowledgment statement

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This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science National Quantum Information Science Research Centers as part of the Q-NEXT center.
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This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science National Quantum Information Science Research Centers as part of the Q-NEXT center.